Randy Spence, PhD is the Director of Economic and Social Development Affiliates (Esda). He worked from 1990-2005 with the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada as Senior Program Specialist in economics and as Director of IDRC’s Regional Office for Southeast and East Asia in Singapore. Prior to joining IDRC, he was a senior economist with the Canadian Department of External Affairs and the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, as well as the Ottawa-based North-South Institute. He has worked on a long-range planning project in Kenya and as an economic advisor in the Tanzanian Ministry of Planning, and has taught economics at McMaster and Guelph universities, in Canada. He has a PhD in economics from the University of Toronto, Canada.