LIRNEasia is a regional ICT policy and regulation think tank active across the Asia Pacific

Knowledge to Innovation

Linking Knowledge to Innovation in Government Services: The Case of Solid Waste Services in Local Government in Sri Lanka

International Development Research center Grant No. 104356-001


Technical Report

Policy Briefs

Clean City Survey (large file)

Knowledge Networks for Skills Development (large file)


NVQ Framework for Skills Development in Local Government

3R Societies (for recycling non- biodegradables)

Green Buckets Program (for recycling biodegradables)




‘Soft’ infrastructure such as education, training and knowledge networks are just as important for society as ‘hard’ infrastructure represented by telecommunication, roads and other physical networks. The K2I program represents the soft-infrastructure side of LIRNEasia.

The K2I program is based on the premise that: (a) Connecting pockets of knowledge through communities of practice is just as important as or more important than creating new knowledge, and (b) Knowledge created in the workplace or mode-2 knowledge is central to innovation, with mode-1 knowledge producers such as universities and research institutes playing a supporting role. This premise is important in developing countries where formal knowledge institutions are weak and ineffective and some sectors in the economy thrive regardless.

During the 2008-2010 period, thanks to the support of IDRC through Grant No. 104356-001,  LIRNEasia has been able to test the above conceptual framework using solid waste management by local authorities as the subject of study. The objective of the action research project was to identify cost-effective and sustainable means of developing a Web of knowledge–based interactions that link any given local authority to (a) peer community (b) a knowledge community, or (c) civil society, and explore if and how such connectedness may lead to improved performance in solid waste management.

Using an action research methodology we have been able to elucidate that   competency standards, and training and certification processes can sustain practitioner networks for cooperation in knowledge sharing in local government, and that, such practitioner networks need to be coupled with tools such as ranking surveys that create a competitive environment in the sector. Facilitating linkages between local authorities and universities or civil society groups proved to be more difficult.   Some possible reasons are explored and detailed in the following documents.

Technical Report

Clean City Survey (large file)

Knowledge Networks for Skills Development (large file)


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