The Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications (BEREC) has condemned ETNO’s proposal to implement a mechanism for online content providers paying the cost of carrying their traffic over telecom networks. Based on its own market analysis in terms of net neutrality, BEREC said it would be inappropriate to include such rules in the ITR. Strictly speaking ETNO is advocating an “interconnection philosophy” based on transmission services being provided across the Internet all along a defined path between endpoints, much like the connection-oriented circuit switched “old generation” PSTN networks and voice services on which ETNO members built their businesses. This is fundamentally at odds with the principles of connection-less packet switched networks underlying the success of the Internet to date, based on decentralisation and simplicity. BEREC believes that the benefits of a connection-less network risk being unravelled by the widespread adoption of connection-based practices on the global Internet.