After Access

Since 2005, LIRNEasia has been conducting large-scale nationally representative demand-side research on ICT access and use in the Asia region. Starting 2017, we have started conducting nationally representative surveys of access to and use of ICTs in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Cambodia, as a start, with Sri Lanka and more countries to be added as funds become available. The work is part of a larger comparative project being conducted in partnership with RIA (Research ICT Africa) in Africa and DIRSI(Dialogo Regional sobre Sociedad de la Informacion) in Latin America.  The research is funded by the International Development Research Centre (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Cambodia) as well as the Ford Foundation (Indonesia and Nepal).


This global effort is meant to collect a range of household, individual and small and micro-enterprise ICT data. The data will be able to offer us deeper insight into the demand-side barriers to digital equality. Our ability to inform policies and regulation will thereby have a more comprehensive base of evidence. The compiled indicators will meet threshold compliance of the WSIS-initiated Partnership for Measuring ICT for Development. The research will provide a detailed understanding of:

  • Demand, or the absence of it
  • Users, citizens and consumers in all their diversity
  • What and what not people are using their mobile devices for
  • Use of social networking and other services
  • Awareness and use of platforms
  • Whether these services stimulate take up and are a gateway to open Internet use or whether they are Internet ghettos for the poor
  • What privacy and security concerns users have, and what coping mechanisms they use to overcome these, if at all
  • The extent to which people use mobile wallet/financial services
  • The reasons for people being offline
  • What they are using the Internet for when they are.

The data collected will help us understand:

  • The evolution of mobile use, internet use and the use of other ICTs
  • Usage patterns and the associated demographics and to model these
  • Consumer welfare, including affordability in the context of real users and real income – not national averages that mask inequality
  • Constraints and drivers of usage ‘After Access’, particularly in relation to human development
  • Use and constraints around mobile financial services
  • Quality of service delivery of ICTs, both public and private
  • How we can inform policy in ways that policy could not be informed other wise



Survey data is being collected from households and individuals, using comparable methodology and a common questionnaire with RIA and DIRSI (with some local customization). Field teams are conducting face-to-face interviews with the respondents and use electronic data entry (CAPI methods). The survey includes two components: (1) an interview with the household head of selected houses, on household characteristics; and (2) an interview with a randomly selected household member (aged 15-65) on individual characteristics and ICT usage.


The sampling of households, individuals and enterprises has been done using probability-based sampling, enabling a representative sample to be selected. The desired level of accuracy for the survey is set to a confidence level of 95% and an absolute precision (relative margin of error) of approximately 3.5%.  Sample sizes ranged from 1,200 up to 5,000 per country. LIRNEasia’s sister network RIA developed the sampling method used for this study. RIA applied their method over the past decade in numerous countries in Africa to achieve nationally representative results for households, individuals and other target groups simultaneously in a cost-effective way. We may make country-wise adaptations to this method, however, based on the availability of national sampling frameworks.

Click here to download the India sample frame and selected locations.

Visit the official AfterAccess page:


  • AfterAccess India Report

    LIRNEasia. (2018). AfterAccess India: ICT access and use in India and the Global South (Version 1).
    Colombo: LIRNEasia

  • Online Abuse in Myanmar

    Both English and Burmese leaflets are available below:

  • A deeper look at the conditions and incidence of e Commerce in the Global South

    NOTE: updated slideset available here.

  • RFP: nationally representative study of ICT access and use in Nepal

    We are inviting Proposals from potential Bidders to conduct a nationally representative study of ICT access and use in Nepal with special focus on the disabled. The full RFP is downloadable below. Please also see our Technical Proposal Template, Financial Proposal Template, and Sample Locations before submitting the proposals. Deadline for submissions is 29 January 2018.

  • REPORT: Mobile Broadband Quality of Service Experience in Myanmar 2017
  • Impact of Mobile Signal Strength on Daily Wage Earnings in Myanmar
  • LIRNEasia’s contribution to work under the Broadband for All Pillar of ESCAP AP-IS

    Most of the organizations that were given time at the First Session of the Steering Committee meeting used the time to advertise themselves. I chose instead to present our broad range of contributions to AP-IS in the form of a short presentation of work done under the Project on Myanmar as an Inclusive Information Society. I briefly described some findings from the baseline and endline surveys, pointing out that much of what came out from the ITU on Internet users was worthless. We are not expecting to do such surveys again, though there is value in surveys being done periodically. My second point was on the need to develop an understanding of broadband quality of service experience. This is where consumers and politicians feel the effects of the international backhaul problems that AP-IS is seeking to solve. My final point was that it was essential that policy makers and regulators had adequate capacity to understand the underlying problems (and contribute to solving them, or at least not contribute to aggravating them). The slideset.

  • LIRNEasia CEO at First Intergovernmental Group of Experts on eCommerce and the Digital Economy

    UNCTAD (UN Commission on Trade and Development) is increasingly creating interesting spaces for discussing the digital economy. Their first meeting of the Intergovernmental Group of Experts was convened 4-6 October 2017 in Geneva. Our CEO Helani Galpaya was invited to speak on the specific challenges faced by developing countries in attempting to measure eCommerce activities.  The meeting coincided with the 2017 Information Economy Report, the annual publication by UNCTAD, which this year had the theme of “Digitisation, Trade and Development”. Helani’s talk also mentioned the upcoming nationally representative surveys in 17 global south countries (including 6 in Asia) as being a good source of data on ICT use by households and individuals as well as (in Africa) informal enterprises.  

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